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Subject: Re: [std-proposals] A note on adding language features.
From: Domen Vrankar (domen.vrankar_at_[hidden])
Date: 2019-09-26 00:57:15


On Thu, Sep 26, 2019, 4:02 AM Jefferson Carpenter via Std-Proposals <
std-proposals_at_[hidden]> wrote:

> As tempting as it is to add new and powerful features to the language,
> for various reasons from simplifying existing code to 'keeping up' with
> other languages out in the field, it's a dangerous and bloody art to do so.
>

That's true to some extent - from my point of view C# is adding far too
much syntactic sugar from time to time (like ??, ??=, ?. and ?[] operators
that are just monkey patching the underlying issue of having null values
all over the place - while it shortened the code a friend of mine really
didn't like it as he like you argues for simplicity and after a chat with
him I had to agree). On the other hand I would never place C++ features
like templates (instead of generics), concepts, reflection/metaclasses in
the same bucket (while programming in C# I missed value semantics the most
and templates right after that) - while the latter adds quite alot of new
things it is fixing missing peaces of meta programming that simplify my
reading and writing of code (you could argue that generating code can be
done with outside tools ant that it is simpler but I'd argue back that for
each generator two people would use a different technique so learning it
for me would be harder - same as "here's a simpler home made container that
you should learn while at the new job" compared to "we're using standard
containers that you already know from your previous job"). Going back to C#
for comparison while they were adding syntactic sugar they missed the await
version of foreach loop which caused us to while loop over all database
result containers, with our custom async iterators, making code harder to
read - while you were able to write code with existing tools it was way
longer and convoluted.

The C++ spec may define the syntax and evaluation semantics of the
> language, but what breathes life into it is the compiler. The more
> complicated the spec is, the more complicated the compiler must become.
> We're fortunate to have a diverse set of c++ compilers from the
> proprietary to the open source, but the more features get added, the
> higher the initial cost to creating a new viable c++ compiler project.
>

Agree.

Slow and steady wins the race. There does not exist a language feature
> (except maybe value semantics) that will not, at some point in the near
> or far future, become invalidated by cleaner ways of doing the same
> thing. Adding too many features kills languages.

Not adding them does the same (it's just harder to see due to all the
legacy code that is still being maintained, giving a false feeling of a
living language). While I do agree that not every feature should be added I
do feel that the rate of adding them and what to add is balanced quite
nicely bi C++ standard committee.

Optimally, the rate
> at which features are added should be equal to the rate at which they
> are deprecated and removed, over long time spans.

This is hard for at least two reasons. 1) old code doesn't always get a
face lift while new code is added and C++ backward compatibility is one of
its strenghts. 2) Quite often in C++ one feature builds on top of others
and one of the biggest advantages of C++ for me is that there is rarely
magic big feature that I can't reason about and build up from smaller
building blocks. Admittedly my biased opinion but so is the entire what is
slow/fast enough for features issue.

This ensures that
> compiler writers will not have to do too much up-front work to learn to
> maintain a compiler or to write a new one.
>
> To pick on coroutines (although they certainly can be useful), co_await,
> co_yield, and co_return can be implemented as library functions
> abstracting and making platform-independent the existing functions
> setjmp and longjmp, with only the overhead of keeping a reference to
> some state holding the continuation in the calling code and the
> continuation in the coroutine. Additionally, while coroutines make
> serial asynchronous operations easier to write, they cannot do the same
> for parallel asynchronous operations without potentially pessimizing
> performance. In "x = co_await y; x2 = co_await y2;" x2 cannot be
> assigned before x has been assigned - even if y2 completes before y -
> unless the compiler can come up with a proof that such re-ordering does
> not change the visible behavior of the program.

When I came from C# back to C++ the thing that I missed the most was
async/await so I consider this feature to be a bad thing to be picking on.

For what you wrote I doubt that that's the case but for some crazy reason
most people give such examples for C# as well...

Task<X> x = y();
auto x2 = y2();
co_await wait_all(x, x2);

Nobody forces you to await imediately... You are awaiting X but nobody
forces you to throw away the promise (Task is just a packed
std::future/promise which was to some extent for me harder to understand in
C# as they ignore the building blocks and go straight to the Task).

This is C++ified version of how you'd write it in C# and there most people
that I worked with also didn't know/think about that - and when I
introduced it some people no longer understood what it did as tutorials
didn't teach them... But I had to do it in order to get a big performance
boost in one part of the code (meaning going from 20min to 2min as resource
requests were parallelized - some resources were being fetched multiple
times which was achieved with linq/ranges like api but custom written due
to missing async foreach amongst other things).

Instruction reordering
> and the as-if rule already indicate that the semantics of C++ place too
> much emphasis on the sequencing of operations over the dependency graph
> of data.
>
> As excited as I am for new C++20 features including concepts and
> coroutines, I'm more excited for the deprecation of most of volatile. I
> want the language to be well understood as-is so that it can be reasoned
> about, the real pain points identified, and the spec slowly changed to
> meet new needs with the patience of a community that deserves to
> continue to beat until the last program is written and the last rock is
> dust.
>

New is a house on top of building blocks so throwing away the building
blocks and placing the house on magic is for me harder to learn and use (my
mental model builds from parts and doesn't like situations where they are
missing/hidden so much that I can't connect them). I'm OK with
deprecating/removing std::auto_ptr in favour of better replacements, I
would not be thrilled if somebody just decided to deprecate classes just
because functional programming is "the way to go" or future/promise/thread
because task/async/await is the way to go (or functors because lambdas
exist...).

I agree that mostly features that change the way you think should be
preferred (and standard commettee foes a great job of that) but would not
want to have new magic that deprecates primitive buidling blocks as "this
way is better, you shouldn't use the building blocks anymore".

Just my biased perspective on the topic.

Regards,
Domen

Peace,
> Jefferson
> --
> Std-Proposals mailing list
> Std-Proposals_at_[hidden]
> https://lists.isocpp.org/mailman/listinfo.cgi/std-proposals
>



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