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Subject: Re: [ub] type punning through congruent base class?
From: Herb Sutter (hsutter_at_[hidden])
Date: 2014-01-15 15:48:26


Richard, I'm not sure I understand your position... Given the following complete program ...

  struct B { int i; };
  struct D : B { };

  int main() {
    B b; // line X
  }

... are you actually saying that line X starts the lifetime of an object of type D? or just setting up a strawman? (Sorry, I really couldn't tell.)

If yes, then given the following complete program ...

  struct C { long long i; };

  int main() {
    C c; // line Y
  }

... are you saying that line Y could start the lifetime of an object of type D (which is not mentioned in the code), double, shared_ptr<widget>, or any other type than C, as long as the size of that other type is the same or less than sizeof(C)?

Herb

________________________________
From: ub-bounces_at_[hidden] <ub-bounces_at_[hidden]> on behalf of Richard Smith <richardsmith_at_[hidden]>
Sent: Monday, January 6, 2014 3:44 PM
To: WG21 UB study group
Subject: Re: [ub] type punning through congruent base class?

On Mon, Jan 6, 2014 at 10:22 AM, Jason Merrill <jason_at_[hidden]<mailto:jason_at_[hidden]>> wrote:
On 01/06/2014 04:26 AM, Fabio Fracassi wrote:
> if it is not (legal): could we make it legal or would we run afoul of
> the aliasing rules?

The access is not allowed by the aliasing rules in 3.10. But it seems
that this would be:

struct B {
   int i;
};

struct D {
   B bmem;
   void foo() { /* access bmem.i */ }
};

B b;
reinterpret_cast<D&>(b).foo();

because B is a non-static data member of D, and 9.2/19 guarantees that
the address of D::bmem is the same as the address of the D object.

How is that fundamentally different? 9.3.1/2 makes that UB too, if 'reinterpret_cast<D&>(b)' does not refer to an object of type 'b'. And within D::foo, the implicit this->bmem would have the same problem.

If I might play devil's advocate for a moment...

  struct B { int i; };
  struct D : B {
    void foo();
  };

  B b;

I claim this line starts the lifetime of an object of type D. Per [basic.life]p1, the lifetime of an object of type 'D' begins when storage with the proper alignment and size for type T is obtained (which "B b" happens to satisfy). The object does not have non-trivial initialization, so the second bullet does not apply.

(This is the same argument that makes this valid:

  D *p = (D*)malloc(sizeof(D));
  p->foo();

... so any counterargument will need to explain why the two cases are fundamentally different.)

Then:

  reinterpret_cast<D&>(b).foo();

... is valid, because the cast produces the same memory address, and that memory address contains an object of type 'D' (as claimed above).



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