On Thu, 27 Apr 2023 at 20:35, 萧 叶轩 via Std-Proposals <std-proposals@lists.isocpp.org> wrote:

Reduce undefined behavior of signed integer literal arithmetic operations

Abstract

Apply integral promotion on signed integer literal arithmetic operations to reduce undefined behavior.

## Background

According to:

basic.fundamental/1 : The range of representable values for a signed integer type is −2<sup>N−1</sup> to 2<sup>N−1</sup> − 1.

basic.fundamental/2 : Overflow for signed arithmetic yields undefined behavior.

expr.pre/4 : If during the evaluation of an expression, the result is not mathematically defined or not in the range of representable values for its type, the behavior is undefined.

Considering the following code, each line has an undefined behavior:

auto a = INT_MAX + 1;

auto b = -INT_MIN;

long long c = INT_MAX + 1;

long long d = -INT_MIN;

GCC and Clang can diagnose that `INT_MAX + 1` and `-INT_MIN` have undefined behavior, while MSVC can only diagnose that `INT_MAX + 1` has.

## Solution

Add a rule that when the operands of an operator are literals, apply integer promotion to increase the width of the type of the result to be large enough to store the value of the result value.

INT_MIN is not required to be a literal though, it might be something like (-INT_MAX - 1). That's an integral constant expression of type int. So the operand of -INT_MIN is not a literal.

None of the constants in <limits.h> are required to be literals, so INT_MAX might be something like (2147483647), which also isn't a literal.