Regarding use of volatile and compound assignments, I can provide a few comments.

A project I worked on previously involved communicating between a GPP and FPGA (a system-on-chip). We communicated with the FPGA via memory mapping of the FPGA "registers" to RAM (note, I will use the term "register" for the memory-mapped locations in the FPGA after this point). As such, any accesses to those FPGA registers were volatile. I thought for sure we did compound assignments all the time. However, I took a look today and compound assignment is less frequent than I thought.

The main reason we don't *always* use compound assignment for bit twiddling is what I will call "coherence" of the operations. If for any reason the operation might result in multiple writes to the register, we would do those on a temporary and then write. In some cases, registers were backed by FIFO queues. We could not allow writing of partial results of a word into that register. We also would use a temporary to perform complex bit masking needed to be done. I should also note that we had locking at a higher level, so there was no threading concern for these operations. Our primary issue was ensuring that the writes to the FPGA were coherent.

Daniel